Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, Vol. 2 by Walter Mertz


By Walter Mertz

From the Preface
The significant swap within the layout of the 5th variation is the presentation of the booklet in volumes, necessitated by means of the speedily expanding wisdom of metabolism, interactions, and necessities of hint components ... The tenet was once to provide the minimal of effects that may function a logical beginning for the outline of the current nation of knowledge.
Recent result of examine have been accommodated through devoting new chapters to the themes "Methodology of hint aspect learn" and "Quality coverage for hint point research" and via increasing the dialogue of lithium and aluminum in separate, new chapters. the 1st topics are of remarkable value as determinants of destiny growth. the worry for the standard of analytical info influenced the authors of the person chapters to study severely and, the place valuable, revise analytical info offered within the past versions. The swift development of hint analytical technique because the mid-1970s has replaced what have been permitted as general for the concentrations of many hint components in tissues and meals. the recent information mirror the current state-of-the-art in hint aspect research, yet they are topic to destiny revision.

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A redistribution of zinc from bone to skeletal muscle has also been reported in rats fed a deficient diet ( 7 0 9 ) . Accelerated uptake and increased retention of zinc are observed at wound sites. Trauma and stress also cause changes in zinc distribution remote from the site of injury. Serum levels of zinc are decreased, uptake by the liver is in­ creased, and uptake by bone and muscle is decreased ( 9 3 2 ) . Entry of zinc into cells occurs in t w o phases: an early, rapid uptake that is saturable and probably carrier mediated, followed by a slower phase that is apparently passive ( 8 7 2 , 8 7 9 ) .

Serum zinc concentrations also show an inverse relationship to growth hormone levels: patients with acromegaly had signifi­ cantly decreased serum zinc l e v e l s , whereas in those with isolated growth hor­ mone deficiency, zinc levels were elevated. In both conditions, serum zinc levels normalized with treatment ( 3 8 3 ) . 8. Hyperzincemia Although plasma zinc levels are lowered by a large number of conditions, elevated concentrations are much less c o m m o n in humans. 5 μ g / m l have been achieved in acute response to ingestion of a single oral dose of a zinc salt supplying 2 5 - 1 0 0 m g zinc on an empty stomach ( 6 8 3 , 8 5 2 ) , but levels rapidly return to normal within 4 hr.

Over the 5 hr following the meals, between 144 and 300% of the amount of zinc ingested was calculated to be recoverable at the first aspiration site, at the ligament of Treitz. This represented an entry into the gut of an additional 2 . 2 - 4 . 8 mg zinc. Much of this zinc must eventually be reabsorbed to avoid negative zinc balance. The pancreatic secretions are a major contributor to endogenous zinc secretion in a number o f species ( 3 0 1 , 5 9 4 , 6 3 3 , 8 8 8 ) . Montgomery et al. ( 6 3 3 ) s h o w e d that 6 5 10% of a intravenous dose o f Z n was secreted in pancreatic j u i c e , with < 1 % appearing in the bile of the dog; ligation of the pancreatic and bile ducts reduced recovery o f radiozinc from the intestinal lumen ( 7 1 ) .

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