Syntax and Semantics: Pragmatics by Peter Cole


By Peter Cole

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Them-of hand some not ' They got nothing. ' 1 0 fell 29 Negative Scope and Rules of Conversation ( 15) Mai - nee usee kah ii nah ii deekha . me-erg. him-obi. somewhere not saw ' I didn' t see him anywhere. ' ( 16) Mai nee usee kabhii nah ii deekhaa . him-obi. sometime not saw me-erg . ' I never saw him . ' ( 1 7) Aaj - kooii (bhii) nahii aayaa . today some emphasis not came ' Today no one came/today someone didn' t come . ' According to the speakers of Hindi and Urdu I have consulted, ( 1 7) has two readings , and both are possible for the sentence as it stands .

Erg. saw some-obi. not saw ' Some (people) saw (something), some didn't. ' Kisii , The first clause contains an indefinite without a negative, the second clause an indefinite with a negative, and they are obviously supposed to contrast, not contradict one another. The assumption follows from the general princi­ ple that an utterance is supposed to have a point. So if one asserts that something is true of some individuals, then the following clause must mean that it is not the case that some others have that property.

1 97 1 ) " Mo vement in Restrictive Relative Clauses in Hindi , " Studies in the Linguis tic Sciences (Department of Linguistics , Univers ity of Illinois), 1 . 2 , 1 -74. Grice , H . P . ( 1 975) " Logic and Conversation, " in P . Cole and J. L. Morgan , ed s . , Syntax and Semantics : Speech A c ts, vol . 3, Academic Pre s s , New York . Guru , K . P. ( 1 962) Hindii Vyaakara"(l [Hindi Grammar] , Naagariipracaarinii Sabhaa, B enares . Kachru , Y . ( 1 973) " Some A spects o f Pronominalization and Relative Clause Construction in Hindi-Urdu , " Studies in the Linquistic Sciences (Department of Linguistic s , University of Illinois) 3 .

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