Defending the U.S. Air Transportation System Against by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and

Political Freedom

By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Materials Advisory Board, Committee on Assessment of Security Technologies for Transportation

Traditionally, such a lot terrorist assaults on civilian objectives have concerned using firearms or explosives, and present protecting suggestions are aimed toward fighting assaults perpetrated via such potential. although, using the nerve agent sarin in 1995 to assault the Tokyo subway process, using the U.S. mail in 2001 to distribute letters containing anthrax spores, and the invention in 2004 of the organic toxin ricin in U.S. Senate place of work structures in Washington, D.C., display that chemical and organic brokers were further to terrorists' arsenals. assaults regarding chemical/biological brokers are of significant main issue, not just as a result of the power for mass casualties but additionally simply because there's no approach or expertise fielded this present day which may reply thoroughly to this chance. because the usa and different nations re-evaluate the safety measures they've got in position to avoid or shield opposed to such assaults, the dangers to the air transportation approach as a prime aim turn into transparent. protecting the U.S. Air Transportation procedure opposed to Chemical and organic Threats is an exploration of protective recommendations that may be used to guard air transportation areas (specifically, airport terminals and airplane) opposed to assault with chemical or organic brokers and makes thoughts with recognize to the position of TSA in imposing those ideas.

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P. P. L. J. T. G. L. T. Hadley, M. E. Gard, “Reagentless Detection and Classification of Individual Bioaerosol Particles in Seconds,” Anal. , Vol. 76, pp. 373-378, 2004. S. AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM AGAINST CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL THREATS DETECTION -BASED PARADIGM vs. NON-DETECTION BASED PARADIGM INCOMING AIR CHEMICAL 10 SEC BIO 2 MIN FILTER SAMPLE 5 MIN PRETREAT 60 MIN INCUBATE 30 SEC 2 MIN MEASURE ~20 SEC >10 MIN EVALUATE <1 MIN >80 MIN VERIFY ~DAYS?! CONTINUOUSLY TREAT RESPOND DECIDE WHAT TO DO FIGURE 3-4 Typical detection times for chemical and biological agents (left-hand side).

Therefore, the fastest “detector” of this type of attack may be the visual observation that individuals in the terminal or aircraft are collapsing or behaving in an unusual manner. One option for improving the capacity to recognize such attacks rapidly would be to deploy enough surveillance cameras to observe the spaces where large numbers of people gather and to feed the output back to a central monitoring point. Unlike a technological detector, which is only capable of responding to a limited number of toxic chemicals that have been anticipated and whose signatures have been placed in a reference library, the surveillance camera is a “functional detector” that can be expected to “see” the effects of all fast-acting toxic chemicals that are present in sufficient concentration to cause symptoms.

Time to Verify Alarm Validity All detection systems feature a trade-off between the probability of detection (POD) of the target substance and the probability of false (positive) alarms (PFA). POD refers to the probability that the instrument will detect a threat material that is present; PFA refers to the probability that the instrument will alarm when a threat material is not present at a given threshold level. The overall concentration of the target substance affects this trade-off: higher concentrations are easier to detect, resulting in performance closer to the optimum operating point (perfect detection with zero false alarms).

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