Defending English Ground: War and Peace in Meath and by Steven G. Ellis

England

By Steven G. Ellis

A key accountability of the Renaissance monarchy used to be the defence of its matters. For the English monarchy, the guideline and defence from enemies past the long-landed frontiers in eire and the English far-north proved an intractable challenge. It used to be no longer, even though, an obligation which was once accorded a excessive precedence via successive Yorkist and early Tudor kings, neither is it a facet of kingdom formation which has attracted a lot realization from sleek historians. This learn assesses conventional preparations for protecting English flooring, the influence of the frontier on border society, and how within which the topography and styles of cost in border areas formed the nature of the march and border itself.

Defending English Ground makes a speciality of English shires, Meath and Northumberland, in a interval in which the ruling magnates of those shires who had hitherto supervised border rule and defence have been commonly unavailable to the crown. Unwilling to foot the price of huge garrisons and prolonged fortifications, successive kings more and more shifted the prices of defence onto the neighborhood inhabitants, prompting the border gentry and minor friends to arrange themselves via county groups for the guideline and defence of the sector. This process used to be normally profitable in eire the place the army chance provided by means of 'the wild Irish' was once no longer so ambitious, yet within the English far-north Tudor reform, centralized regulate, and the weight of defence opposed to the Scots quickly ended in 'the decay of the borders'.

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F. Berdah, and Miloš Řezník (eds), Frontiers, regions and identities in Europe (Pisa, 2009), pp. 3, 5. 11 Pollard, North-Eastern England, p. 14; Storey, ‘North of England’, p. 130; M. Holford, A. D. Liddy, ‘North-East England in the Late Middle Ages: Rivers, Boundaries and Identities, 1296–1461’ in A. J. Pollard (eds), Regional Identities in NorthEast England, 1300–2000 (Woodbridge, 2007), p. 40. 12 Cf. Mervyn James, Family, lineage and civil society: a study of society, politics, and mentality in the Durham region 1500–1640 (Oxford, 1974), pp.

57–77 usefully surveys the actual fortifications (at pp. 65–72), but within the context of a contracting Pale. 27 Two recent volumes offer a revised appreciation of the settlers’ English identity and the character of the medieval march on the eve of the Tudor period. Brendan Smith, Crisis and Survival in Late Medieval Ireland: The English of Louth and their Neighbours, 1330–1450 (Oxford, 2013) is a major study which also marks a clear advance on inherited ideas in many other areas, but unfortunately it appeared too late for me to make full use of.

68–70; Pollard, North-Eastern England, pp. 13–14. 24 Defending English Ground peoples who were both subjects of the one king. Long before this, however, the military importance of the frontier had declined: during the sixteenth century relations between England and Scotland improved, particularly during ‘the long peace’ which followed the treaty of Edinburgh in 1560. The impact of the Reformation also disrupted traditional ties between Scotland and France at the same time as it helped to forge a newfound sense of religious solidarity between two Protestant regimes in London and Edinburgh.

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