Cyclic Nucleotides in the Nervous System by John Daly

Mammals

By John Daly

The elucidation of the mobile and molecular bases underlying the inte­ grated functionality of the valuable frightened process, either in illness and in healthiness, needs to finally come from the mixed efforts of scientists from many disciplines, together with biology, chemistry, histology, pathology, body structure, pharmacology, and psychology. verbal exchange among scientists from those a number of disciplines-vital to the development of our realizing of the functionality of the apprehensive system-has develop into a growing number of tough in recent times. either expanding specialization and the awesome raises in guides pertinent to mind examine in a large spectrum of journals, in symposium volumes, in monographs, in abstracts, and in reports contrib­ ute to the issues of cross-communication or even of communique inside a systematic self-discipline. study at the importance of cyclic nucleo­ tides to the functionality of frightened structures is very illustrative of the communique challenge. because the preliminary courses via Sutherland, Rall, and Butcher within the overdue fifties and early sixties on excessive degrees of adenylate cyclase, phosphodiesterases, and cyclic AMP in mind, the consequent litera­ ture of this box has increased exponentially. this day, from 5 to 10 courses suitable to cyclic nucleotides and the anxious procedure seem each one week. certainly, those are minimum numbers dependent quite often on exam of literature titles and key index phrases. Many articles enthusiastic about a few point of important functionality include, buried inside of their textual content, experiments with or with regards to cyclic nucleotides.

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In another study, levels of cyclic AMP in rat cerebrum were maximal at about 2 months of age and then declined to much lower levels which were maintained from 6 months to at least 2 years of age (Zimmerman and Berg, 1973; Zimmerman and Isaacs, 1975). Maximal serum levels oftestosterone were attained at 3 months of age and then markedly declined. It was suggested that the two phenomena might be interrelated. , 1972). , 1976). , 1971). , 1975c). Cyclic AMP levels in chick cerebrum decreased fourfold during the first 4 weeks after birth, while the postdecapitation increase in cyclic AMP nearly doubled.

In homogenates from adult cerebellum both catecholamines activated cyclase by nearly 10O%J; the amines had no stimulatory effect in senescent cerebellum. , 1972), dopamine did not activate cyclases in homogenates of rat cerebellum. In homogenates of caudate from adult rats, dopamine caused an activation of cyclases, but this activation was nearly absent in homogenates from senescent rats. The results of Walker 28 Chapter 2 and Walker (1973b) suggest either that adenylate cyclases of brain became less responsive to catecholamines during senescence or that hormonal sensitivity was less well preserved in homogenates from senescent rats.

1974). In the latter cell line, dopamine, norepinephrine, and prostaglandin El stimulated cyclase activity, while serotonin and histamine were ineffective. Combinations of acetylcholine and either dopamine or norepinephrine had additive effects on cyclase activity. The stimulatory effects of acetylcholine and/or dopamine were effectively blocked by the muscarinic antagonist, atropine. Atropine had only marginal inhibitory effects on the stimulation of cyclase by norepinephrine. Nicotinic "antagonists," such as hexamethonium and nicotine, also reduced the stimulatory effect of acetylcholine, while haloperidol, phentolamine, and propranolol had no antagonistic action.

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