Countries and Their Cultures, Volume 3: Laos - Rwanda by Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember


By Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember

Just like the ten-volume Encyclopedia of worldwide Cultures (Macmillan, 1996), the four-volume nations and Their Cultures is predicated at the choice of ethnographic details referred to as the Human kin zone records dependent at Yale college. in contrast to international Cultures, that is geared up through tradition, the hot paintings is geared up by means of nation. This work's energy is that readers who comprehend little or no a few nation can quick receive an outstanding orientation to the most important matters, background, and social constitution of a country. The 225 entries are among ten and 20 pages lengthy and browse like a move among a well-written encyclopedia article, a commute consultant, and a social technology essay. they supply an outstanding normal assessment of a rustic with no enormously oversimplifying or distorting. All entries have a similar constitution, with sections on geography, historical past, demography, languages, nutrition, economic climate, etiquette, politics, kin, faith, and humanities and arts. A country's measure of cultural cohesion in addition to its cultural adaptations are defined within the sections on nationwide id, ethnic kinfolk, and social stratification. each one access has a map with a nearby insert, black-and-white images, and a bibliography of contemporary scholarly books. suggested in particular for libraries that don't personal Encyclopedia of global Cultures. Marc Meola, Coll. of recent Jersey Lib., Ewing

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Extra resources for Countries and Their Cultures, Volume 3: Laos - Rwanda

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This created a close relationship between Lebanese Christians, particularly the Maronites, and Europe, particularly France. These ties persisted and grew stronger, especially in the eighteenth century, and were a major factor in the creation of the modern Lebanon. After World War II, Lebanon was placed under French mandate. Later, France gave Lebanon a parliamentary system and, for the first time in the Middle East, created a nation where Christians had a Lebanese are present throughout the world.

During the Soviet period Russian was a compulsory subject at school. In the postindependence period parents can have their children educated in Latvian or Russian. Symbolism. Folk songs (dainas) are the most potent symbol of national identity. These songs construct a vision in which the natural, human, and supernatural worlds are intertwined. Oak and lime trees symbolize men and women. The apple tree is frequently associated with orphanhood, a state that symbolically represents the Latvian nation.

Under the Soviet occupation, professional positions were filled primarily by Russian immigrants. Social mobility was linked to ethnicity and membership in the Community Party. Since 1990, although wages have not kept up with inflation, creating new types of poverty, education has remained the route to professional success and high social status. P OLITICAL L IFE Government. Under the constitution of 1991, the highest legislative authority is vested in the parliament (saeima), which includes one hundred members elected in general multiparty elections every four years (before 1998, it was every three years).

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