Constituent Syntax: Quantification, Numerals, Possession, by Philip Baldi

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By Philip Baldi

New views on old Latin Syntax: Constituent Syntax (Quantification, Numerals, ownership, Anaphora) is the 3rd of 4 volumes facing the long term evolution of Latin syntax, approximately from the 4th century BCE as much as the sixth century CE. basically an extension of quantity 2, quantity three concentrates on extra subsentential syntactic phenomena and their long term evolution from the earliest texts as much as the overdue Latin interval. incorporated in quantity three are distinctive remedies of quantification, numerals, ownership, and deixis/anaphora. As within the different volumes, the non-technical variety and broad representation with classical examples makes the content material readable and instantly invaluable to the widest viewers. Key positive aspects first ebook to investigates the long term syntactic historical past of Latin usually available to linguists and non-linguists theoretically coherent, formulated in functional-typological phrases doesn't require studying fluency in Latin, considering that all examples are translated into English

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Extra info for Constituent Syntax: Quantification, Numerals, Possession, Anaphora

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Haspelmath also indicates the contexts that allow only a nonspecific reading – imperatives, interrogatives, and conditionals – and identifies in pragmatics the reasons why in such contexts a specific indefinite cannot occur. In our opinion, Latin requires a more differentiated analysis. Latin uses three different indefinite pronouns to cover the cases represented by the tripartition proposed by Haspelmath (specific/nonspecific/ known to the speaker): aliquis is generally, though not always, specific; quidam is specific and known to the speaker; and quis is nonspecific.

7 In the relation between the specific/nonspecific distinction and the presupposition of existence, the context of occurrence of an indefinite pronoun is highly relevant. We distinguish realis from irrealis contexts and show that this distinction is useful in giving an account of the distribution of Latin indefinites such as quis, aliquis, quispiam. Realis contexts are affirmative sentences in the perfective past or in the ongoing present (tenses with a definite temporal anchorage). As shown by languages like Russian, which is provided with two distinct series for specific and nonspecific reference, only specific indefinites are allowed in realis contexts.

6. The term “implication” in Lyons is analogous to the term “presupposition”. Cf. on this matter Horn (1976: 5), who explains that to say the present king of France is bald is to imply that “There is an entity x such that x is (a) King of France” in “some sense of imply”, a sense which constitutes a new logical relation that has become known as presupposition. Quantification (3) 25 Every evening at six o’clock a heron flies over the chalet The distinction is relevant for Latin, where, in the absence of indefinite articles, it is through the choice of different indefinite pronouns that the distinction between a specific and a nonspecific reference is captured.

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