Constituent Syntax: Quantification, Numerals, Possession, by Philip Baldi
By Philip Baldi
New views on old Latin Syntax: Constituent Syntax (Quantification, Numerals, ownership, Anaphora) is the 3rd of 4 volumes facing the long term evolution of Latin syntax, approximately from the 4th century BCE as much as the sixth century CE. basically an extension of quantity 2, quantity three concentrates on extra subsentential syntactic phenomena and their long term evolution from the earliest texts as much as the overdue Latin interval. incorporated in quantity three are distinctive remedies of quantification, numerals, ownership, and deixis/anaphora. As within the different volumes, the non-technical variety and broad representation with classical examples makes the content material readable and instantly invaluable to the widest viewers. Key positive aspects first ebook to investigates the long term syntactic historical past of Latin usually available to linguists and non-linguists theoretically coherent, formulated in functional-typological phrases doesn't require studying fluency in Latin, considering that all examples are translated into English
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Extra info for Constituent Syntax: Quantification, Numerals, Possession, Anaphora
Haspelmath also indicates the contexts that allow only a nonspeciﬁc reading – imperatives, interrogatives, and conditionals – and identiﬁes in pragmatics the reasons why in such contexts a speciﬁc indeﬁnite cannot occur. In our opinion, Latin requires a more differentiated analysis. Latin uses three different indeﬁnite pronouns to cover the cases represented by the tripartition proposed by Haspelmath (speciﬁc/nonspeciﬁc/ known to the speaker): aliquis is generally, though not always, speciﬁc; quidam is speciﬁc and known to the speaker; and quis is nonspeciﬁc.
7 In the relation between the speciﬁc/nonspeciﬁc distinction and the presupposition of existence, the context of occurrence of an indeﬁnite pronoun is highly relevant. We distinguish realis from irrealis contexts and show that this distinction is useful in giving an account of the distribution of Latin indeﬁnites such as quis, aliquis, quispiam. Realis contexts are afﬁrmative sentences in the perfective past or in the ongoing present (tenses with a deﬁnite temporal anchorage). As shown by languages like Russian, which is provided with two distinct series for speciﬁc and nonspeciﬁc reference, only speciﬁc indeﬁnites are allowed in realis contexts.
6. The term “implication” in Lyons is analogous to the term “presupposition”. Cf. on this matter Horn (1976: 5), who explains that to say the present king of France is bald is to imply that “There is an entity x such that x is (a) King of France” in “some sense of imply”, a sense which constitutes a new logical relation that has become known as presupposition. Quantiﬁcation (3) 25 Every evening at six o’clock a heron ﬂies over the chalet The distinction is relevant for Latin, where, in the absence of indeﬁnite articles, it is through the choice of different indeﬁnite pronouns that the distinction between a speciﬁc and a nonspeciﬁc reference is captured.