Computer science and technology and their application by Mark I Halpern
By Mark I Halpern
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At the cost of more storage and more complex update, separate secondary indexes usually provide faster search than embedded A Tutorial on Data-Base Organization FIG. 47 20. indexes. The storage costs become similar if compression techniques are applied to the separate index and attribute values are included in the primary data of the multilist organization. An important advantage of separate indexes is their independence. Without affecting the primary data or other indexes, they can be created, moved around, and destroyed as requirements change, and their search time is independent of the number of other indexes in the data bank.
Furthermore, this installation has only been sharing data in the batch mode. With on-line systems, the maintenance problem becomes more difficult and more extensive. Clearly, a major motivation for data independence is the problem of change. The other major motivation is the problem of control: the control needed by the data base administrator to create and evolve a consistent and integrated data base, and the control needed to maintain its security and integrity. Looking briefly at the history of control over data, we note that in the first generation each programmer had complete control over his data.
Furthermore, sequential or binary scans are needed to search an index block. Search techniques are analyzed by Salton , Iverson , Buchholz , and Meadows . Secondary indexes include both structural and nonstructural data maps. Simple maps are possible, but as inverted lists, secondary indexes are usually complex maps. Regular organizations with secondary indexes may be classified into two groups depending on the method used to represent the secondary indexes. If a chained list representation is used such that pointers are embedded in the data, we have what is called a "multilist organization".