Coal Combustion and Conversion Technology by D. Merrick (auth.)

Chemical Engineering

By D. Merrick (auth.)

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Development programmes have also been initiated in a number of other countries including the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, Canada, Poland and the USSR. Most of the research and development effort since 1973 has been concentrated on the hydrogenation route . Recently, however, the synthesis route has attracted renewed interest following improvements in catalyst technology such as the Mobil process and greater emphasis is now being given to this option in development programmes . 11. CHAPTER 3 FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTION Fluidised bed combustion (FBC) differs from both conventional stokers and pulverised fuel combustion in being applicable to a wide spectrum of modern coal-fired systems ranging from small industrial boilers and fu'rnaces to large power generation units .

The advantages include good solids mixing good heat distribution and, consequently , a uniform temperature effective gas-solids contacting high heat transfer coefficients to immersed surfaces These advantages apply in particular to the combustion of coal to which the remainder of this chapter is devoted . 2 Chemical reactions Combustion When coal is fed to a fluidised bed the particles are heated rapidly. Typically, the residence time of a coal particle is between a fraction of a minute and a few minutes, depending on the size grading of the particles .

It is, therefore, to the history and status of these processes that most of the remainder of the present section is devoted. Following the accidential discovery of crude oil by Colonel Edwin Drake in 1859 while drilling for brine in Pennsylvania, production in the United States grew rapidly. The United States became established as the world's major oil producer, a position that it maintained until the expansion of production History of Coal Combustion and Conversion Technology 35 in the Middle East during the 1950s.

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