Chiral Recognition in Separation Methods: Mechanisms and by Alain Berthod (auth.), Alain Berthod (eds.)

By Alain Berthod (auth.), Alain Berthod (eds.)

The value of chiral interactions for either preparative and analytical separations, really for pharmaceutical purposes, is underlined through various courses during this box. the following, for the 1st time, a workforce of skilled analysts from and academe offers a complete evaluation of a few of the mechanisms that lead to enantiomer separations. a greater realizing of those approaches is important for surroundings in addition to bettering chiral separation approaches and in addition for constructing new purposes. The assurance during this ebook contains a diversity of separation equipment, comparable to fuel, liquid, or countercurrent chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. The exact case of chiral ionic beverages is tested intimately. newest chiral selectors are mentioned, together with derivatized polysaccharide- and cyclodextrin-based selectors, besides a newly brought classification of carbohydrates: the cyclofructose selectors. This booklet should be required studying not just for study and improvement departments within the pharmaceutical and beauty industries, but in addition for researchers in toxicology, environmental tracking, and foodstuff research.

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Once the later are known, the retention factors of any solute whose LSER descriptors are known can be predicted on this particular chromatographic system. One of the more widely accepted symbolic representation of the LSER model was proposed by Abraham as follows: log k = c + eE + sS + aA + bB + vV (6) where k is the solute retention factor ((tR −t0 )/t0 ). The capital letters, E, S, A, B, and V, are the solute descriptors independent of the mobile and/or the stationary phase used. E is the solute excess molar refraction modeling the solute polarizability due to n- and/or π-electrons in excess of that of a comparable-sized n-alkane; S is the solute descriptor for the dipolar character and also polarizability of the molecule; A and B are, respectively, the H-bond solute acidity (H-donor) and basicity (H-acceptor) descriptors; and V is the McGowan’s characteristic molecular volume calculated using the solute structure [45].

A positive value for a system parameter indicates that the corresponding interaction increases retention; hence, it is more favorable for the stationary phase. A negative sign on a system parameter denotes more favorable interactions in the mobile phase leading to decreased retention. 2 The LSER Theory and Chiral Separations In the LSER theory, two enantiomers have identical sets of descriptors, which correctly indicate that enantiomers are not separated by any isotropic stationary phase. They can, however, be separated by a CSP.

Thus, the enantioselectivity factor, α, will be modeled as follows: log k2 − log k1 = log α = eE + sS + aA + bB + vV (7) in which k1 and k2 are the retention factors of the first and last eluted enantiomers and all the terms correspond to energy changes responsible for the observed enantioselectivity. LSER studies in chiral separation have a heavy workload. It is first necessary to determine the system parameters, e, s, a, b, and v, of the studied CSP using achiral solutes. Next, the A−V descriptors of a set of enantiomers must be evaluated using the system parameters previously obtained for classical, achiral columns.

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