Chemistry Fundamentals Handbook by Department of Energy

Chemical Engineering

By Department of Energy

The Chemistry guide used to be built to help nuclear facility working contractors in offering operators, upkeep team of workers, and the technical employees with the required basics education to make sure a uncomplicated knowing of chemistry. The instruction manual contains info at the atomic constitution of subject; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions concerned with corrosion methods; water chemist!*)' keep an eye on, together with the rules of water remedy; the risks of chemical compounds and gases, and uncomplicated gaseous diffusion techniques. this knowledge will supply body of workers with a starting place for knowing the chemical homes of fabrics and how those houses can impose barriers at the operation of kit and platforms.

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Rev. 0 Page 27 CH-01 CHEMICAL BONDING DOE-HDBK-1015/1-93 Fundamentals of Chemistry Figure 10 Van der Waals Forces Van der Waals forces are small compared to the forces of chemical bonding and are significant only when the molecules are very close together. Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is defined as the chemistry of carbon compounds. The compounds of carbon are in forms of living things and in synthetic fabrics and plastics. Organic chemistry is so broad a topic that it is usually subdivided into smaller areas.

D. 2 DESCRIBE the physical arrangement and bonding of a polar molecule. 3 DESCRIBE the three basic laws of chemical reactions. 4 STATE how elements combine to form chemical compounds. 5 EXPLAIN the probability of any two elements combining to form a compound. 6 DEFINE the following terms: a. b. c. Mixture Solvent Solubility d. e. f. Solute Solution Equilibrium Chemical Bonding As stated in the previous chapter, the number of electrons in the outer, or valence, shell determines the relative activity of the element.

CH-01 Page 48 Rev. 8 x 10-8 moles/liter. What is the pH of the solution? 83. What is the hydrogen concentration of the solution?  pOH It is also important to understand the relationship between the [H+] and the [OH ] concentrations. The pOH of a solution is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydroxyl concentration, represented as [OH-] in moles/liter. pOH = -log [OH-] (1-3) [OH-] = 10-pOH (1-4) For water solutions, the product of the hydrogen ion concentration and the hydroxyl concentration is always 1 x 10-14 at 25(C.

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