Catalyst Deactivation 1991 by C.H. Bartholomew, J.B. Butt
By C.H. Bartholomew, J.B. Butt
Catalyst Deactivation 1991 used to be an elevated model of prior, hugely winning symposia. The symposium featured invited and solicited papers together with four plenary lectures, seventy eight oral shows and 23 poster papers. many of the papers are contained during this quantity.
The 8 major issues emphasized at this most up-to-date symposium have been: deactivation mechanisms/phenomena (carbon deposition, poisoning, and sintering), equipment (modeling and techniques), and demanding catalysts (hydrotreating, oxides, and zeolites). All of those parts have been good represented as attested via the enormous variety of papers contained in those complaints. 4 evaluate papers in response to the plenary lectures supply cutting-edge views on new thrusts in deactivation study and improvement.
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6 3. Draw the q line from the z point with a slope of 2q/(1 2 q). 4. Draw the SOL from the xB point to the intersection of the q line and the ROL. 7 q line. 2 BINARY MC CABE – THIELE METHOD 33 Subtracting the two equations gives (VR À VS )yint ¼ (LR À LS )xint þ (DxD þ BxB ) The last term on the right is just Fz. Using the definition of q leads to (VR À VS ) ¼ (1 À q)F (LR À LS ) ¼ ÀqF Substituting these relationships into the previous equation gives (1 À q)Fyint ¼ ÀqFxint þ Fz Àq z yint ¼ xint þ 1Àq 1Àq This is the equation of a straight line with slope 2q/(1 2 q).
12. Type in the desired new name. The same procedure is used to rename streams. 13 gives the flowsheet with all blocks and streams renamed to correspond to conventional distillation terminology. The feedstream is F1, the distillate stream is D1, and the bottoms stream is B1. 12 Renaming a block. 13 53 Renamed flowsheet. column C1. Some logical scheme for renaming units and streams is essential in a large plantwide simulation with many units and many streams. 2 SPECIFYING CHEMICAL COMPONENTS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES The structure of the flowsheet is now completely specified.
If the feed is saturated liquid, q is 1; if the feed is saturated vapor, q is 0: q¼ LS À LR F ) LS ¼ qF þ LR V S ¼ LS À B The stripping operating line (SOL) can be drawn. It is a straight line with slope LS/VS that interects the 458 line at the bottoms composition xB. 5. 6 shows the two operating lines. 2 q Line There is a relationship between the intersection point of the two operating lines and feed conditions. 7, a straight line can be drawn from the location of the feed composition z on the 458 line to this intersection point.