Broadband Opto-Electrical Receivers in Standard CMOS (Analog by Carolien Hermans
By Carolien Hermans
This e-book opens with the fundamentals of the layout of opto-electronic interface circuits. The textual content maintains with an in-depth research of the photodiode, transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and restricting amplifier (LA). to completely describe mild detection mechanisms in silicon, first a one-dimensional and moment a two-dimensional version is built. All fabric is experimentally tested with a number of CMOS implementations, with eventually a completely built-in Gbit/s optical receiver front-end together with photodiode, TIA and l. a..
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2) The standard deviation σn is equal to the rms value of the noise voltage vn,rms . • The threshold voltage VT H of the decision circuit is located at the midpoint between the zero and one levels, so: VT H = V1 + V0 . 3) The decision circuit determines whether a bit is a zero or a one by comparing the signal at the output of the PA (or TIA) with this threshold voltage. As demonstrated in [Cou97], a decision level in the middle of the zero and one levels minimizes the BER. For the measurements described in Chapter 6, the decision circuit is included in the measurement equipment.
To minimize collector series resistance, the collector not only consists of an epitaxial n− -layer, but also has a buried n+ -subcollector and n+ -collector plugs. Without any process modiﬁcations, the buried n+ subcollector can serve as the cathode, the n-collector epitaxial layer can serve as the intrinsic region of a PIN diode, and the p-base implant can serve as the anode. The main advantage of a PIN diode is its lowly doped intrinsic region where a high electric ﬁeld is present if it is depleted.
Inside the n-well an interdigitated network of p-diﬀusion ﬁngers forms the active terminal of the detector. 04 A/W near junction breakdown (10 V). 3 dBm. Another way to circumvent the problem of diﬀusing substrate carriers is proposed by [Roo00]. The spatially modulated light (SML) detector consists of a row of rectangular p− -n junctions (ﬁngers) alternatingly covered and noncovered with a light blocking metal. The masked ﬁngers connected together form the deferred detector. The other ﬁngers connected together form the immediate detector.