Breeding Superman: Nietzsche, Race and Eugenics in Edwardian by Dan Stone


By Dan Stone

Sooner than the 1st international battle there existed an highbrow turmoil in Britain as nice as any in Germany, France or Russia, because the debates over Nietzsche and eugenics within the context of early modernism show. With the increase of fascism after 1918, those debates grew to become extra ideologically pushed, with technology and vitalist philosophy being hailed in a few quarters as saviors from bourgeois decadence, vituperated in others as heralding the onset of barbarism. Breeding Superman appears to be like at numerous of the prime Nietzscheans and eugenicists, and demanding situations the long-cherished trust that British intellectuals have been essentially bored with race. the result's a research of radical rules that are conventionally written out of histories of the politics and tradition of the interval.

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Nevertheless, at the moment of which we speak, the determining thing was that the Scottish people as an active political force were intensely Calvinist in spirit, particularly in their capital of Edinburgh. Now in one way this would tend to make Englishmen suspicious of the Calvinist temper, for Scotland was still the hereditary enemy and a Scotchman still an alien in England, as was an Englishman in the eyes of Scotchmen. But on the other hand the presence of an active example abroad is always of great support to those who are of the same opinion at home.

The King paid for what he regularly needed, however public the service, out of what he privately owned – his control of the forest and waste lands, his ownership of manors, his feudal dues paid to him personally as an owner of feudal rights over his direct tenants, through wardships, and the proceeds of his courts of justice. And the very word “tax” meant in those days almost the opposite of what it means today. It did not mean a regular recurrent levy; it meant a special payment made to meet a particular crisis, and not to be repeated.

But it is significant that the envoys of the King of Spain pleaded with the Pope for the new Liturgy, urging that it might be reconciled with Catholicism; and even the Oath of Supremacy, which was capital to the carrying out of Cecil’s plans, was not universally imposed. In many parishes where men took Communion in the Anglican form they also continued to take it privately in the Roman. When the real change did come, after 1569, the persecution of Catholicism was always represented not as a persecution of religion, but of treason.

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