Brain-Computer Interfaces: Revolutionizing Human-Computer
A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes an immediate output channel among the human mind and exterior units. BCIs infer person cause through direct measures of mind job and hence let communique and keep watch over with no flow. This booklet, authored through specialists within the box, presents an obtainable advent to the neurophysiological and signal-processing heritage required for BCI, provides cutting-edge non-invasive and invasive techniques, offers an outline of present and software program strategies, and studies the main attention-grabbing in addition to new, rising BCI purposes. The e-book is meant not just for college kids and younger researchers, but additionally for rookies and different readers from various backgrounds prepared to benefit approximately this important medical endeavour.
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Additional info for Brain-Computer Interfaces: Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction (The Frontiers Collection)
Some beta rhythms are harmonics of mu rhythms, while others are separable from mu rhythms by topography and/or timing, and thus are independent EEG features [48–50]. For several reasons, SMR rhythms are likely to be good signal features for EEG-based BCI uses. They are associated with the cortical areas most directly connected to the brain’s normal neuromuscular outputs. Movement or preparation for movement is usually accompanied by SMR decrease, especially contralateral to the movement. This decrease has been labeled “event-related desynchronization” or ERD [49, 51].
The classifier is adjusted between daily sessions. Features selected by the algorithm are concentrated in the mu- and beta-rhythm bands in EEG over sensorimotor cortex . This BCI system has been use to open and close a prosthetic hand, to select letters, and to move a computer cursor [68–71]. , 72]. Compared to scalp-recorded EEG, this ECoG activity has higher amplitude, greater topographical specificity, wider frequency range, and much less susceptibility to artifacts such as EMG activity.
Typically, the application is specifically tailored for a particular type of BCI, and often the application is an integral part of the BCI system. BCIs that can connect and effectively control a range of already existing assistive devices, software, and appliances are rare. An increasing number of systems allow control of more sophisticated devices, including orthoses, prostheses, robotic arms, and mobile robots [35–40]. Figure 7 shows some examples of BCI applications, most of which are described in detail in this book (corresponding references are given in the figure caption).