Bats in Question: The Smithsonian Answer Book by Don E. Wilson

Mammals

By Don E. Wilson

Lengthy the topic of fable and superstition, bats were one of the such a lot misunderstood of mammals because of their nocturnal behavior, means for flight, and weird visual appeal. looking to dispel the myths linked to those notable creatures and arguing for his or her key position in a balanced surroundings, Bats in query covers all features of bat biology in a realistic question-and-answer format.

Describing the place bats dwell, how they use echolocation to navigate, or even why they dangle the other way up, the e-book additionally provides the conservation prestige of all 925 bat species. Don E. Wilson lines the evolution of bats and indicates their amazing range by means of describing all the significant teams when it comes to their diverse physique constructions and habitats. He sheds mild on bats' complicated social structures, outstanding version in dimension, and foodstuff personal tastes that surround crops, bugs, and mammals. The e-book additionally explores cultural attitudes approximately bats—telling how, until eventually lately, bats were relegated to the realm of vampires and the way they've got emerged to take their position in public know-how as very important and interesting contributors of our ecosystems.

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B. Stacey, L. P. Johnson. 2001a. A mammalian predator–prey imbalance: grizzly bear and wolf extinction affect avian neotropical migrants. Ecological Applications 11:967–980. E. L. Persson. 2001b. Recolonizing carnivores and na ¨ıve prey: conservation lessons from Pleistocene extinctions. Science 291:1036–1039. J. E. A. A. Menge. 1999. Quantifying variation in the strengths of species interactions. Ecology 80:2206–2224. M. 1997. Guns, Germs, and Steel: the Fates of Human Societies. , New York, New York, USA.

Where wildfire has been suppressed, stands often consist of emergent large ponderosa pine with a thick understory of ponderosa pine, other conifers, or shrubs. On drier sties and where wildfire plays a relatively natural role, ponderosa pine forests are usually composed of widely spaced, relatively large trees in a park-like setting with few snags and little down wood (Harrington and Sackett 1992, Mehl 1992, Hamilton 1993, Covington and Moore 1994). Individual mature trees in mature and old stands vary considerably in size, depending on site conditions (Hamilton 1993).

Mature stands often consist of widely spaced redwood with a lower canopy of Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and other species. Unmanaged mature and old stands generally consist of ≥69 m2 /ha basal area and 37 trees ≥101 cm dbh with abundant large snags and large down wood (Borchert 1992, USDA Forest Service 1993). Age structure analysis of cut-over stands indicates that, although redwood reproduces slowly, its reproductive rate is sufficient to perpetuate populations in the absence of fire and other disturbances (Franklin and Halpern 2000).

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