Applications of X-ray Computed Tomography in the Geosciences by F. Mees, R. Swennen, M. Van Geet, P. Jacobs

By F. Mees, R. Swennen, M. Van Geet, P. Jacobs

X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a method that permits non-destructive imaging and quantification of inner gains of items. It was once initially constructed as a scientific imaging approach, however it is now additionally turning into conventional for the research of fabrics in engineering and the geosciences. X-ray CT finds transformations in density and atomic composition and will consequently be used for the research of porosity, the relative distribution of contrasting stable levels and the penetration of injected options. As a non-destructive procedure, it's splendid for tracking of tactics, comparable to the move of strategies and the behaviour of fabrics below compression. simply because huge numbers of parallel two-dimensional cross-sections may be bought, 3-dimensional representations of chosen gains might be created. during this e-book, numerous functions of X-ray CT within the geosciences are illustrated by means of papers protecting a variety of disciplines, together with petrology, soil technology, petroleum geology, geomechanics and sedimentology. additionally to be had: Mapping detrimental Terrain utilizing distant Sensing - distinctive book no 283 - ISBN 1862392293 Geoinformatics: facts to wisdom - GSA USPE397 - ISBN 9780813723976 The Geological Society of LondonFounded in 1807, the Geological Society of London is the oldest geological society on this planet, and one of many greatest publishers within the Earth sciences.The Society publishes quite a lot of top quality peer-reviewed titles for teachers and execs operating within the geosciences, and enjoys an enviable overseas acceptance for the standard of its work.The many components during which we put up in include:-Petroleum geology-Tectonics, structural geology and geodynamics-Stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology-Volcanology, magmatic reviews and geochemistry-Remote sensing-History of geology-Regional geology publications

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Extra resources for Applications of X-ray Computed Tomography in the Geosciences (Geological Society Special Publication No. 215)

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1. 2cm diameter homogeneous sandpack. Note the lighter shading just inside the core holder. 26 S. AKIN & A. R. KOVSCEK X-rays. It is realized more often in relatively large objects and is manifested as dark bands around the periphery of objects. For example, the image in Figure 1 displays typical beam hardening effects. It results in falsely high CT numbers (Herman 1980, pp. 76-83 & 161-179). The artefact amplitudes increase with scanned volume or slice width. Object scatter can be reduced in third generation CT geometry by collimating the detector elements.

These include transparent models, resistivity, X-ray absorption, nuclear rnagnetic resonance and X-ray and gamma ray attenuation. Honarpour et al. (1986) summarize these methods. All impose restrictions and provide only localized average values for the saturations. In comparison to the above-mentioned techniques, CT measurement of saturation is fast, accurate, easy to calibrate and offers fine spatial resolution. There are several different CT methods for in situ saturation determination. Linear interpolation between pure states In this technique, it is assumed that the CT number of the core lies on the straight line connecting complete saturation by phase 1 (say water) to complete saturation by phase 2 (say oil).

F. E. 1995. Water/oil relative permeability endpoints of intermediate-wet low-permeability rocks, Society of Petroleum Engineers Formation Evaluation, 10, 4-10. , CHATZIS, L, MACDONALD, F. L. 1988. Using a vertical scanner for horizontal scanning in non-medical applications of computer assisted tomography. CSNDT Journal, March/April, 20-25. O. & OKANDAN, E. 1999. Heterogeneity effects on the storage and production of gas from coal seams. In: Proceedings of the 1999 Society of Petroleum Engineers Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 3—6 October, Paper SPE 56551.

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