An introduction to granular flow by K. Kesava Rao

Chemical Engineering

By K. Kesava Rao

The movement of granular fabrics resembling sand, snow, coal, and catalyst debris is usual prevalence in average and business settings. The mechanics of those fabrics isn't really good understood. they're very important when you consider that a wide fraction of the fabrics dealt with and-processed within the chemical, metallurgical, pharmaceutical, and foodstuff processing industries are granular in nature. This e-book describes the theories for granular stream established mostly on continuum versions even though substitute discrete types also are mentioned in brief. the extent is acceptable for complex undergraduates or starting graduate scholars. The aim is to notify the reader approximately saw phenomena, a few to be had types, and their shortcomings and to go to a few concerns that stay unresolved. there's a choice of difficulties on the finish of the chapters to inspire exploration, and broad references are given
''This ebook describes the theories for granular stream established typically on continuum versions, even if substitute discrete types also are mentioned in short. the extent is acceptable for complicated undergraduates or starting graduate scholars. The aim is to notify the reader approximately saw phenomena and a few to be had types and their shortcomings and to go to a few concerns that stay unresolved. there's a number of difficulties on the finish of the chapters to motivate exploration, and broad references are given.''--BOOK JACKET.  Read more... conception for sluggish aircraft movement -- move via hoppers -- movement via wedge-shaped bunkers -- conception for gradual third-dimensional stream -- stream via axisymmetric hoppers and bunkers -- concept for swift move of soft, inelastic debris -- research of quick stream in basic geometries -- conception for fast stream of tough, inelastic debris -- Hybrid theories

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26 is the configuration of the body at time t. If t is the current time, the cofiguration is called the current configuration. In the absence of phase changes and chemical reactions, each configuration of a body contains the same set of material points. The volume corresponding to each of these configurations is called a material volume and is denoted by Vm (t). Thus the shape and size of a material volume can change with time, but it always contains the same set of material points. To proceed further, the concept of a reference frame must be introduced.

At a high humidity, condensation of water leads to the formation of a liquid bridge, provided the particles are not too far apart. The force associated with the liquid bridge is discussed below. 2. Liquid Bridge or Capillary Forces A liquid bridge is a layer of liquid connecting two particles (Fig. 14a). Considering particle B, the surface tension of the air–liquid interface exerts a horizontal force Fh to the left. Let γs denote the surface tension of the liquid, β the filling angle, and θc the contact angle between the interface and the surface of the particle.

For a polar molecule such as carbon monoxide, the charge distribution is equivalent to two unlike point charges equal in magnitude and separated by some distance. This is called a (permanent) dipole. Interactions between dipoles of two polar molecules give rise to the orientation or Keesom contribution. If a polar molecule is near a nonpolar molecule such as methane or argon, the dipole of the former induces a dipole in the latter, and the interaction between these dipoles provides the induction or Debye contribution.

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