Advances in Crystal Growth Inhibition Technologies by Zahid Amjad
By Zahid Amjad
During this publication, educational researchers and technologists will locate very important info at the interplay of polymeric and non-polymeric inhibitors with a number of scale forming crystals such as calcium phosphates, calcium carbonate, calcium oxalates, barium sulfate, calcium pyrophosphates, and calcium phosphonates. in addition, the e-book supplies info to plant managers and formulators who want to expand and deepen their wisdom approximately strategies interested by precipitation of sparingly soluble salts and research extra in regards to the inhibitory features of assorted commercially to be had fabrics. in addition, skilled researchers will receive fruitful and encouraging rules from the simply obtainable information regarding overlapping study parts, for you to advertise discoveries of latest inhibitors (synthetic and/or ordinary) for the at the moment unmet demanding situations.
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During this ebook, educational researchers and technologists will locate vital details at the interplay of polymeric and non-polymeric inhibitors with a number of scale forming crystals such as calcium phosphates, calcium carbonate, calcium oxalates, barium sulfate, calcium pyrophosphates, and calcium phosphonates.
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Extra info for Advances in Crystal Growth Inhibition Technologies
Open and closed circle: lauryl phosphate, Open and closed triangle: myristyl phosphate, open cross: cetyl phosphate. T0 = 35 min. Figure 4. Surface tension as a function of concentration of alkyl phosphate at a room temperature. [Arginine]/[alkylphosphate] = 3 mole/mole. 9 % K2HPO4 was not added. 25 mM CaC12. Surface tension was determined after filtration of the solution when the precipitate of calcium alkyl phosphate came out. (A) for lauryl phosphate, (B) for myristyl phosphate. 0(300 mM arginine).
Thus, the inhibition of crystal growth cannot be ascribed to polyacrylate adsorption on crystal surfaces and different mechanisms, such as the formation of chelates between carboxylate and calcium ions, for instance, must be suggested. The main effect of the polyelectrolyte on the morphology of the crystal aggregates seen at the scanning electron microscopic investigation is a reduction of the length of the blades which constitute the spherules, as well as the hollow spheres. The comparison of the images in fig.
Alkyl phosphate ion captures Ca2+, to which Pi also approaches, resulting in formation of the cluster of ---Ca-Pi-Ca-Pi--- . Some of alkyl phosphate groups may aggregate like a micelle or pre-micelle due to hydrophobic interaction between the hydrocarbon chains during and after the cluster formation. Figure 5. Schematic illustration of heterogeneous nucleation. (A) for soluble alkyl phosphate in the presence of arginine. (B) for insoluble alkyl phosphate in the absence of arginine. Hydrogen ion, sodium ion, chloride ion, and water molecule are not shown here.