A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar by John R. Perry
By John R. Perry
This can be the 1st finished reference grammar of Tajik, the Persian of principal Asia, to seem in English. It describes the fashionable literary language, with examples of colloquial and dialect utilization, from the early Soviet interval (1920s) up till Tajikistan's independence after 2001. Grammatical examples, taken from a number of literary resources, are given in either the Cyrillic and Perso-Arabic scripts. whole verb paradigms, a grammatical index, and parallel word-indexes in either writing structures make it effortless to discover specific issues. crucial for the Iranologist and comparative linguist, for the the scholar or instructor of Tajik Persian, and a beneficial complement should you paintings with Persian of Iran or Afghanistan. With huge indexes.
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Extra resources for A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar
V/ is labiodental initially and between vowels: варақ £jj /varaq/ 'page', бева ÖJ-J-J /beva/ 'widow'; but in final position, between rounded vowels, and preconsonantally after /a/ it tends to be realized PHONOLOGY AND ORTHOGRAPHY 25 as bilabial /w/: гов 3IS /gow/ 'cow', овоз jl jT /owoz/ 'voice', савол Jlj—^u/sawol/ 'question', гувоҳ ölj_k /guwoh/ 'witness', қавл J j 1 /qawl/ 'word, promise'; пайрав 3J ^ /payräw/ 'following, subordinate', butnaiipaBH ^jJ__I_»/payravi/ 'adherence, subordination'.
5 For more detailed discussion, see Perry 1997; Rzehak 2001, pp. 329-33. PHONOLOGY AND ORTHOGRAPHY FIG. 11, under и). Before the vowel e, however, uncritical excision of the soft sign may have unwanted results in some cases. In Rus. 11; the Tajik spelling should remain unchanged or, if revised, would beВиетнам *J» '-yjj> Transcription. The last column of Fig. 10 shows transliteration values for (Cyrillic) Tajik. For comparison, words are occasionally transliterated or transcribed as from Standard Persian of Iran; "long" vowels are then written as ä, i9 u, and "short" vowels as a, e, o.
One with a long vowel or a final consonant cluster, will assume primary stress if there are no prefixes: guzdst-and 'they passed'. Prefixes bi-, me-, na- are always stressed; if more than one occurs, the first (the negative na-) is stressed: mexonad 'she's reading', ndmeravam 'I won't go'. ', ndmeovardänd 'they did not bring', and participles (which are stressed as nominals) on the prefix: meomadagi. 46). 6)9rqftd-ast 'he has gone'. Intonation. Stress and pitch patterns in Tajik phrases and sentences are naturally capable of considerable variation, especially in longer speech strings.