A Jewish Targum in a Christian World by Alberdina Houtman, E Staalduine-Sulman, Hans-Martin Kirn

Old Testament

By Alberdina Houtman, E Staalduine-Sulman, Hans-Martin Kirn

What's the use of a Targum in a cultural surroundings the place Aramaic isn't a typical language anymore? And why might Christians have an interest in a commonly Jewish textual content in an in a different way anti-Jewish milieu? those and similar questions have served as courses for Alberdina Houtman, Eveline van Staalduine-Sulman and Hans-Martin Kirn in bringing jointly the articles for the current e-book, which is composed of 3 components: 1. makes use of and services of Targum in Europe; 2. enhancing Targums and their Latin Translations; three. Targums and Christianity. many of the articles care for the codicological and paratextual features of the proper manuscripts and variations as witnesses in their cultural historic events. The meant readership comprises experts in Targum, Jewish and medieval reports, (church) historians, codicologists and (Christian) theologians.

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In Antiquity, the option of ‘framing’ a text by writing a commentary, a solution to the stalemate between the competing authorities of text and institutions of learning, developed initially in the Mediterranean at literary centres such as Alexandria, but was based on the culture of a library rather than a cult with a limited number of books. The process of canonization of the biblical text which excluded the option of adaption of the text to changing circumstances and needs (Tal 2001), and the loss of Hebrew as vernacular because of historical developments and geographical dispersion, gave rise in Judaism to the creation of a multilingual liturgy, giving a literary or oral translation in the vernacular alongside the original text.

Some of these late manuscripts (eighteenth or nineteenth century) provide Aramaic and Ladino alternating verse by verse and one manuscript contains Hebrew, Aramaic and Ladino. 6 • • 6 See further A. Houtman, ‘The Role of the Targum in Jewish Education in Medieval Europe’ in this volume. 18 van staalduine-sulman • 2. Haftarot with Hebrew and Turkish translation of the Targum. The oriental ms X 893 J 749 (Columbia University, Butler Library, New York), dated 1838, contains the Hebrew translation of the richly expanded Targum of the haftarot for the first, seventh and eighth day of Pesach.

6), but such collections were also copied in Europe. Some were copied as a separate manuscript, others were part of a larger entity. A fine example of FT as a part of a larger manuscript is ms Vaticani Ebr. 439–440, providing all kinds of Targum texts and concluding with an FT collection. A collection of FT was published in the first (Venice 1517) as well as in the second Rabbinic Bible (Venice 1525) (Klein 1975). g. in the seventeenth century ms Sassoon 264 (Sassoon Collection, Letchworth) (Klein 1980, 7).

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