A Grammar of Kham (Cambridge Grammatical Descriptions) by David E. Watters

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By David E. Watters

This can be a accomplished grammatical documentation of Kham, a formerly undescribed language from west-central Nepal, belonging to the Tibeto-Burman language kinfolk. The language has an strange constitution, containing a couple of features which are of quick relevance to present paintings on linguistic conception, together with break up ergativity and its demonstrative approach. Its verb morphology has implications for the knowledge of the historical past of the complete Tibeto-Burman kinfolk. The ebook, according to broad fieldwork, offers copious examples in the course of the exposition. it will likely be a useful source for typologists and common linguists alike.

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Remove loan words and the count goes even higher – up to 96 percent. The striking fact in light of these figures is that the inherent intelligibility levels between the Takale and Gamale dialects should be so low – somewhere in the mid 30 percent range. 5 High numbers of cognate words between dialects does not always ensure high intelligibility levels. The reasons can be varied and complex. ’ Any two words in related languages are established as cognate on the basis of diachronic rules of phonological change, not on subjective notions of whether they sound alike or not.

1). Table 9 shows some correspondences. Table 9. 6 Diphthongs ending in /-i/ In Takale (and its closest siblings), Proto-Kham coronal codas (except *-l) have been lost with a resulting diphthong ending in /-i/. Table 10 gives the correspondences. 30 2 Segmental phonology Table 10. Offglides from loss of coronal codas in Kham –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Proto-Kham Bhuji Sheshi Takale other /-˙t/ > /-˙i/ PTB make *jat jat -j˙tj˙i jat (Magar) clothe *kway *s-kwa-t kwat -kwat- kwaih blow *s-mut *s-mut muht mut mwi:h mhut (Magar) hear *ta-s *that that th˙i÷ th˙i thas (Chantel) –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– /-ut/ > /wi/ hand *kut kut kwi: kwi: gud (Tibetan) compress *r-tshut chut chwi: chui (Thakali) lay egg *r-zut juht hrut zuhri: rhu- (Magar) leech *r-wat *b-s-rut brut lui÷ rwi:h lawat (Magar) –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– /-˙n/ > /-˙üî/ know *s˙n s˙n s˙n s˙üî syan (Chepang) milk *n˙w *nun nun nwüî: nunu (Chantel) prevent *won wi÷ woüî üoy (Sunwar) –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– This is a widespread Bodish phenomenon, which has been discussed in general by Michailovsky (1975a), and in more detail for Sunwar by Genetti (1992).

Aspiration is further restricted to syllable onsets. The absence of a voiced aspirate series /bh/, /dh/, /gh/, and /jh/ is partly a matter of interpretation. This will become more clear in chapter 3 on Tone. For now, it is enough to know that ‘lax phonation,’ a breathy laryngeal quality of the vowel, occurs with voiceless onsets as well as voiced ones. In syllables with voiceless onsets, the difference between aspiration and lax phonation on the vowel is qualitative and easy to perceive, as in the following three-way contrast: (8) a.

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